The development of the information age requires the establishment of a communication network system with fast transmission rate, large amount of information and wide coverage. Space laser communication mainly uses laser as a carrier to load information onto the laser and transmit it in free space such as outer space. At the receiving end, information transmission and communication can be realized through a series of photoelectric conversion. Today, as space satellites become increasingly crowded, they have received extensive attention and research from various space military powers.
The smaller size, lighter weight and lower power consumption of space laser communication systems are the driving force behind their ability to move into space. Previously, the United States has accumulated research and development through a series of projects such as “Laser Communication Demonstration System”, “International Orbiting Space Station Optical Communication”, “Synchronous Orbital Lightweight Technology Experiment”, “Mars Laser Communication Demonstration System” and “Transition Satellite Communication System”. A solid technical foundation. At the same time, Europe and Japan have successively carried out inter-satellite laser communication experiments. Russia has also used laser communication to transmit electronic data back to the ground receiving station, and transmitted 2.8 GB of space data in one breath.
Compared with traditional radio communication methods, space laser communication technology uses light waves as information carriers and has a larger available frequency band. At the same time, laser communication greatly reduces the possibility of interception of information in the communication process, better confidentiality and security, and effectively avoids the dilemma of global radio spectrum resources shortage, or will open a new era of future space military application data transmission.
At the same time, space laser communication will be promising in the civilian field. Several commercial companies in the United States have invested heavily in the research and construction of space laser communication networks, which will further promote the practical process of space laser communication.
In the future, space laser communication is expected to become a key technology for data transmission between satellites and terrestrial networks, and to complement the terrestrial optical fiber network, and to establish a three-dimensional cross-laser communication network including satellites and the atmosphere inside and outside the atmosphere, completely subverting the existing global communication system and becoming A large-bandwidth high-speed communication network that meets the information transmission needs of the Internet of Things era.